Biological Sciences

As one of the natural science departments in GW’s Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, biological sciences explores the science of life, from biomolecules to ecosystems. Faculty members are engaged in research on campus and around the world, regularly collaborating with other leading researchers at the National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History.

Professors R.K. Packer, R. Donaldson, D.L. Lipscomb (Chair), J.M. Clark, L.C. Smith, G. Hormiga, G. Ortí, R.P. Tollo, K.A. Crandall

Associate Professors C.A. Forster, P. Hernandez, J.T. Lill, A. Jeremic

Assistant Professors D.W. Morris, H.G. Döbel, I. Eleftherianos, R.A. Pyron, D. O’Halloran, A. Zanne, S. Powell, A. Smith, M. Manier, T. Scully (Teaching)

Explanation of Course Numbers

  • Courses in the 1000s are primarily introductory undergraduate courses
  • Those in the 2000–4000s are upper-division undergraduate courses that can also be taken for graduate credit with permission and additional work
  • Those in the 6000s and 8000s are for master’s, doctoral, and professional-level students
  • The 6000s are open to advanced undergraduate students with approval of the instructor and the dean or advising office

Departmental prerequisite: BISC 1111 Introductory Biology: Cells and MoleculesBISC 1112 Introductory Biology: The Biology of Organisms or equivalent is prerequisite to all upper-division courses except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 1000. Dean's Seminar. 3 Credits.

BISC 1001. Departmental Seminar. 0 Credits.

BISC 1005. The Biology of Nutrition and Health. 3 Credits.

A study of the human body and its disorders and diseases through examination of the essential molecules of life, nutrition, digestion, genetics, and reproduction. For non-majors. Laboratory fee.    (Fall).

BISC 1006. The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms. 3 Credits.

Introduction to ecology and evolution, including man’s impact on other plants and animals, and an overview of Earth’s biodiversity. For non-majors. Laboratory fee.    (Spring).

BISC 1111. Introductory Biology: Cells and Molecules. 4 Credits.

Nutrition and metabolism, cellular and developmental biology, genetics, and molecular biology of plants and animals. Laboratory fee.    (Fall).

BISC 1112. Introductory Biology: The Biology of Organisms. 4 Credits.

Concepts and methods in the study of whole organisms. Evolutionary theory; population biology; diversity of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms; ecology and behavior; and animal structure and function. Laboratory fee.    (Spring).

BISC 2000. Sophomore Colloquium. 3 Credits.

Topics on biological diversity from the perspective of species and within the conceptual framework of evolutionary biology. The explanatory power, simplicity, and grandeur of evolution and its products. Consideration of how questions and hypotheses are empirically addressed. Restricted to sophomores, registration by department approval. Prerequisites: BISC 1111 and BISC 1112.   (Fall, even years).

BISC 2202. Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

Structure and function of biological molecules and cellular organelles; cellular interactions. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor and one semester of organic chemistry.

BISC 2207. Genetics. 3 Credits.

Introduction to genetics, with emphasis on the integration of transmission of genetic traits and the molecular basis of gene action. Also includes cytogenetics, gene regulation, and examples of current applications of genetic technology. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2208. Genetics Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Study of genetic principles and genetic and molecular techniques in Drosophila and E. coli. Benchwork and comparative genomics using bioinformatics. Prerequisite or concurrent registration: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor and BISC 2207. Laboratory fee.

BISC 2213. Biology of Cancer. 3 Credits.

BISC 2214. Developmental Biology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (2 hours), laboratory (4 hours). Embryonic development of animals. Principles illustrated by experimental studies of developmental problems. Laboratory exercises involve micromanipulative, biochemical, and molecular studies on animal embryos cultured in the lab. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2220. Developmental Neurobiology. 3 Credits.

The molecular mechanisms that guide neural development: events surrounding the birth of neurons, how specific neurons are determined, how neurons find the correct targets, how cell death guides proper neural development and synapses are formed and maintained. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2305. Plant Biology. 3 Credits.

Discussions of plant metabolism and molecular biology: photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport, mechanisms of hormone action, protein targeting, biotechnology, and current research topics. Prerequisite: CHEM 1111CHEM 1112, BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2318. Histology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (2 hours), laboratory (4 hours). Introduction to microscopical anatomy of normal tissues and organs with emphasis on the interrelationship of structure and function. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2320. Neural Circuits and Behavior. 3 Credits.

The cellular and molecular properties of neural circuits that form the basis of behavior. Circuit properties and behaviors across a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate taxa. Individual neuronal units, the organizational principles and emergent properties of neural circuits, and how these neuronal ensembles influence behavior.

BISC 2322. Human Physiology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the function of organ systems of the human body. Prerequisite: CHEM 1111CHEM 1112, BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2322W. Human Physiology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the function of organ systems of the human body. Prerequisite: CHEM 1111CHEM 1112, BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2323. Human Physiology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Study of basic physiology laboratory techniques; emphasis on the experi-mental study of homeostatic mechanisms in humans. Prerequisite or concurrent registration: BISC 2322, BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Laboratory fee.

BISC 2330. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (2 hours), laboratory (4 hours). General survey of invertebrate animals, including classification, morphology, physiology, embryology, and evolutionary relationships among phyla. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2331. Insect Biology. 4 Credits.

Overview of the class Insecta, focusing on insect external and internal morphology, classification, ecology/behavior, collection, and specimen preparation. Prerequisites: BISC 1111 and BISC 1112. (Fall, even years).

BISC 2332. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 4 Credits.

Lecture (2 hours), laboratory (4 hours). Evolution and comparative morphology of Phylum Chordata, stressing recent forms. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2333. Integrative Biology of Fishes. 3 Credits.

BISC 2334. Integrative Biology of Fishes. 3 Credits.

This class will introduce students to concepts in anatomy, biomechanics, physiology, developmental biology, biomechanics and hydrodynamics, adaptive radiation, evolutionary biology, and ecology using fish as model organisms. Specific details about significant fish groups will be covered, but emphasis will be on exploring broader topics in which fish have figured prominently in research.

BISC 2337. Introductory Microbiology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (2 hours), laboratory (4 hours). Survey of the major groups of microorganisms with emphasis on structure, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and biotechnology. Antibiotic resistance and emerging diseases. Prerequisite: one year of chemistry and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.. Laboratory fee.

BISC 2337W. Introductory Microbiology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (2 hours), laboratory (4 hours). Survey of the major groups of microorganisms with emphasis on structure, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and biotechnology. Antibiotic resistance and emerging diseases. Prerequisite: one year of chemistry and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Laboratory fee.

BISC 2339. Parasitology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (2 hours), laboratory (4 hours). Introduction to animal parasitology; survey of parasitic types from protozoa through arthropods. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2450. Organic Evolution. 3 Credits.

Synthetic theory of organic evolution, including population biology, specia-tion, adaptation, macroevolution, systematics, biogeography, and the geologic record. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2451. History of Life. 3 Credits.

A review of the origin of life, the geologic record, and the evolutionary history of the major groups of organisms, including the origin of life and evolution of invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants. Same as GEOL 2151. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2452. Animal Behavior. 3 Credits.

An evolutionary approach to the study of animal behavior, emphasizing behavioral ecology and sociobiology. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2454. General Ecology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (3 hours), laboratory and field (3 hours). Introduction to the concepts of limiting factors, biogeochemical cycles, trophic levels, and energy transfer and their relationship to the structure and function of population, species, communities, and ecosystems. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2454W. General Ecology. 4 Credits.

Lecture (3 hours), laboratory and field (3 hours). Introduction to the concepts of limiting factors, biogeochemical cycles, trophic levels, and energy transfer and their relationship to the structure and function of population, species, communities, and ecosystems. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2459. Ecology Economy Sustainability. 3 Credits.

BISC 2467. Marine Biology. 3 Credits.

Study of relationships between organisms and physical, chemical, and biological factors of the marine environment. Consideration of the open ocean and coastal ecosystems and human influences on them. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 2580. Biotechnology. 3 Credits.

Genetic engineering of bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. Applications of modern biotechnology, especially in the field of medical biotechnology, such as gene therapy, xenotransplantation, and the Human Genome Project. Regulation, prospects, and social impact of biotechnology. Prerequisite: organic chemistry and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Recommended: BISC 2202 or BISC 2207.

BISC 2580W. Biotechnology. 3 Credits.

Genetic engineering of bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. Applications of modern biotechnology, especially in the field of medical biotechnology, such as gene therapy, xenotransplantation, and the Human Genome Project. Regulation, prospects, and social impact of biotechnology. Prerequisite: organic chemistry and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Recommended: BISC 2202 or BISC 2207.

BISC 2581. Human Gross Anatomy. 3 Credits.

The structural organization of the human body and how it relates to regional and systems-based functions. Emphasis on the macroscopic structure of the body. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Same as ANAT 2181.

BISC 2583. Biology of Proteins. 3 Credits.

About half of the proteins in the human genome have unknown functions. Are some related to cancers, muscle degeneration, infectious disease? How can evolutionary relationships among proteins from other organisms help us discover functions of unknown proteins? Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: AP or IB Biology or Chemistry.

BISC 2584. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the use of computational techniques in molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. Techniques and software for database searching, sequence alignment, gene finding, phylogenetics, genomics, and proteomics.Same as CSCI 3571. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3165. Biochemistry I. 3 Credits.

BISC 3166. Biochemistry II. 3 Credits.

BISC 3209. Molecular Biology. 4 Credits.

Overview of theories, techniques, and procedures associated with molecular biology; topics include the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, relationships among structure, function, and expression; and traditional and modern methods of gene and protein characterization and monitoring. Prerequisite: CHEM 1111CHEM 1112 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Laboratory fee.

BISC 3210. Nanobiotechnology. 3 Credits.

Theory and application of nanotechnologies in biology and medicine. Strategies for studying the organization, function, and complexity of biological systems at nm scale. Several areas of research are covered, including high-resolution cellular and molecular imaging, spectroscopy, and optical tweezers. Prerequisite: BISC 2202 or BISC 3261 or permission of instructor and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3211. Nanobiotechnology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Overview of techniques and approaches to studying complex biological interactions at nm scale. Prerequisite: BISC 3210 or permission of instructor and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Laboratory fee.    (Spring, even years).

BISC 3212. Immunology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to mammalian immunology covering the progression of immune responses from initial pathogen contact to immune memory. Applied topics include autoimmunity, transplantation, and the effects of HIV on the immune system. Prerequisite: BISC 2202 and one semester of organic chemistry and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.; BISC 2207 or BISC 2322 recommended.

BISC 3213. Applied Immunology. 3 Credits.

Overview of current immunologically relevant topics, including autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, HIV, allergy, vaccines, and immunologically based diagnostics. Prerequisite: BISC 3212 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3261. Introductory Medical Biochemistry. 4 Credits.

Introduction to structures of biological macromolecules, enzyme catalysis, cellular bioenergetics, and metabolism. Same as BIOC 3261. Prerequisite: CHEM 2151CHEM 2152. Credit toward the degree cannot be earned for this course and for CHEM 3165.

BISC 3262. Biochemistry Laboratory. 2 Credits.

Study of common experimental techniques used in life science laboratories to separate and characterize biological macromolecules. Same as BIOC 3262/ CHEM 3262. Prerequisite: BISC 3261 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Laboratory fee.

BISC 3263. Special Topics in Biochemistry. 2 Credits.

In-depth discussion of current biochemically relevant topics, including cancer and HIV chemotherapy, immune response, photosynthesis, signal transduction, hormone regulation and nutrition. Topics vary. Same as BIOC 3263. Prerequisite: BISC 3261 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Credit toward the degree cannot be earned for this course and for CHEM 3166.

BISC 3263W. Special Topics in Biochemistry. 2 Credits.

In-depth discussion of current biochemically relevant topics, including cancer and HIV chemotherapy, immune response, photosynthesis, signal transduction, hormone regulation and nutrition. Topics vary. Same as BIOC 3263. Prerequisite: BISC 3261 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Credit toward the degree cannot be earned for this course and for CHEM 3166.

BISC 3320. Human Neurobiology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the function of the human nervous system, gross and microscopic structure, and neurophysiology of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; alterations caused by disease or injury. Prerequisite: BISC 2202 or BISC 3261 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3321. Comparative Endocrinology. 3 Credits.

Basic principles of chemical integration, neuroendocrine relationships, and mechanisms of hormone action. Prerequisite: BISC 2318 or BISC 2322 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3325. Environmental Physiology. 3 Credits.

Mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation and processes of acclimation by which animals respond to environmental challenges; emphasis on vertebrates.    (Spring).

BISC 3450. Evolutionary Medicine. 3 Credits.

The application of evolutionary principles, including natural selection, adaptation, phylogenetics, and evolutionary constraints, to understanding health, disease, and the biology of disease-causing organisms (viruses, bacteria, and parasites). How natural selection and phylogeny influence pathogen-host interactions, human genetics, immunology, development, cancer, and diseases of senescence. Prerequisites: BISC 1111 and BISC 1112. Recommended background: Organic Evolution (BISC 2450) and Genetics (BISC 2207).   (Fall, even years).

BISC 3450W. Evolutionary Medicine. 3 Credits.

BISC 3458. Plant Comparative Structure and Function. 3 Credits.

Fundamental principles of how organisms are built, investigating trade-offs and coordination in design, how variation in structure influences physiological function in different ecological settings, and how relations among plants shape structure and function and responses to ecological gradients. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3459. Field Biology. 4 Credits.

Overview of the approaches and techniques used by contemporary field biologists for cataloging, quantifying, and comparing patterns of biodiversity across plants, animals, and fungi at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Prerequisites: BISC 1111 and BISC 1112. Recommended background: General Ecology (BISC 2454). (Fall).

BISC 3460. Conservation Biology. 3 Credits.

Theory and practice of conserving biological diversity. Ecological patterns of biodiversity, biology of small populations, and conservation case studies. Use of ecological modeling software to explore various topics. Prerequisite: BISC 2454 or permission of instructor and  BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3461. Plant-Animal Interactions. 3 Credits.

Review of the major ecological and evolutionary interactions that occur between plants and animals in natural and managed ecosystems. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. BISC 2450 or BISC 2454 recommended.    (Fall, even years).

BISC 3462. Plant¾Animal Interactions Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Field and laboratory study of temperate interactions between plants and animals. Group projects focus on original data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Prerequisite or concurrent registration: BISC 3461 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor. Laboratory fee.     (Fall, even years).

BISC 3463. Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Credits.

An analysis of the ecological and genetic basis of evolutionary change. Topics include the organization and maintenance of genetic variation within and among natural populations, the genetic basis of complex traits, molecular ecology analyses, and genotype by environment interactions. Prerequisite: BISC 2450 or permission of instructor and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor.

BISC 3564. Lipid Biotechnology. 0-2 Credits.

Same as BIOC 3564/CHEM 3564. Prerequisite: BIOC 3261/BISC 3261 or CHEM 3165. Laboratory fee.

BISC 4171. Undergraduate Research. 1-12 Credits.

Admission by permission of the staff member concerned. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: CHEM 2152 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor; 16 credit hours in biological science courses. Laboratory fee.

BISC 4171W. Undergraduate Research. 1-12 Credits.

Admission by permission of the staff member concerned. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: CHEM 2152 and BISC 1111BISC 1112 except by permission of the instructor; 16 credit hours in biological science courses. Laboratory fee.

BISC 4172. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Prescribed reading list and consultations with staff advisor culminating in a written report and/or examination. Prerequisite: BISC 1111BISC 1112 and permission of the instructor.

BISC 4173. Independent Study-Developmental Biology. 2 Credits.

BISC 4174. Independent Study-Organismic Biology. 2 Credits.

BISC 4175. Independent Study-Genetic/Evolutionary Biology. 2 Credits.

BISC 4176. Independent Study-Environmental Bio. 2 Credits.

BISC 4180. Undergraduate Research Seminar. 1 Credit.

BISC 6101. Responsible Research. 1 Credit.

This course provides an introduction to the ethical, social, and legal foundations of scientific practice. It is intended to provide a forum for graduate students and postdocs to discuss almost every aspect of the academic life of a scientist, except specific disciplinary topics that are treated in regular courses. Ensuring ethical conduct is an essential part of basic, applied, and clinical research, especially in the context of competitive, collaborative, and international settings so common nowadays. Students will be exposed to case studies typifying complex social, ethical, and legal dilemmas that may arise in the conduct of research.

BISC 6102. Scientific Presentation. 1 Credit.

This course allows students to perfect their Scientific Presentation skills. In this course, students will present, in front of peers and faculty, their current research projects and plans for future work leading towards a complete thesis or dissertation. Student presentations will be designed to address a general audience of biologists, containing sufficient background information to provide perspective insights into the fundamental questions being asked, and at the same time providing enough detail on technical issues and analytical procedures to allow evaluation of potential outcomes. The Class will provide a friendly forum for students to collect feedback and comments, to discuss project design, content, and general significance of their research.

BISC 6205. Current Topics in Cell Smith, Donaldson, Eleftherianos, Jeremic. 1-2 Credits.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: BISC 2202 or BISC 3209.

BISC 6206. Current Topics in Evolutionary Ecology. 1-2 Credits.

May be repeated for credit.

BISC 6207. Seminar: Current Topics Clark, Hormiga, Lipscomb, Ortí, Pyron. 1-2 Credits.

Prerequisite: BISC 6210.

BISC 6210. Methods of Study of Evolution. 4 Credits.

A rigorous and up-to-date treatment of the theory and methods of systematics, including phylogenetic inference and its applications in evolutionary biology. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 2450 .

BISC 6211. Biogeography/Coevolution. 4 Credits.

Survey of methods, techniques, and theory in biogeography. Geological and paleontological aspects of biogeography; large-scale biogeographic patterns; speciation and phylogeography. Prerequisite: BISC 2451 or BISC 2452 or permission of the instructor.

BISC 6213. Descriptive Systematics: Documenting Biodiversity. 3 Credits.

Study of those aspects of systematic biology concerned with description and inventory of biodiversity. Prerequisite: BISC 6210.

BISC 6214. The Phylogenetic Basis of Comparative Biology. 3 Credits.

The use of phylogenetic hypotheses to study questions in evolutionary biology and ecology. Prerequisite: BISC 6210; STAT 1127 .

BISC 6215. Vertebrate Phylogeny. 4 Credits.

A survey of vertebrate diversity, emphasizing evolutionary relationships and adaptations of the major groups. Prerequisite: BISC 2450 ; BISC 2332 recommended.

BISC 6216. Morphological Systematics. 4 Credits.

Methods of studying organismal morphology as a means of inferring phylogeny, emphasizing the concept of homology. Laboratory includes techniques of observing, measuring, and imaging morphology in systematic biology, including morphometric methods. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BISC 6210 .

BISC 6218. Innate Immunity. 3 Credits.

Discussion of innate immune systems in a wide variety of organisms; from sponges to vertebrates plus higher plants. Prerequisite: BISC 3212; recommended BISC 2202, BISC 2207, BISC 3209, BISC 2330.

BISC 6219. Host-Microbe Interactions. 3 Credits.

Overview of the molecular, genetic, cellular, and physiological basis of symbiotic and pathogenic interactions between plants and invertebrate and vertebrate animals and various microbial organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Prerequisites: Microbiology (BISC 2337). Recommended background: Intro to Immunology (BISC 3212); Cell Biology (BISC 2202); Invertebrate Zoology (BISC 2330); Parasitology (BISC 2339), or permission of instructor.   (Spring).

BISC 6224. Molecular Evolution. 3 Credits.

BISC 6225. Molecular Phylogenetics. 4 Credits.

Review of molecular phylogenetic methods including data recovery, alignment, weighting, character optimization, and phylogenetic inference methods. Prerequisite: BISC 2207, BISC 2450, and BISC 6210.

BISC 6227. Seminar: Genetics. 3 Credits.

Review of selected topics in genetics, with emphasis on current literature; topics of special interest to participants encouraged. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: BISC 2207.

BISC 6228. Population Genetics. 3 Credits.

Origin, maintenance, and possible significance of genetic variation in populations. Selection, genetic drift, and population structure are emphasized. Both theoretical and applied aspects of population genetics are discussed. Same as FORS 6247. Prerequisite: BISC 2207.

BISC 6230. Human Genetics. 3 Credits.

Genetic mechanisms of transmission and expression of human traits, with emphasis on biochemical and cytogenetic aspects. Prerequisite: BISC 2207; previous course work in cell biology or cell biochemistry strongly recommended.

BISC 6243. Seminar: Ecology. 3 Credits.

In-depth study of selected topics, including reports on original publications. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: BISC 2454.

BISC 6249. Seminar: Developmental Biology. 3 Credits.

Discussion and reports on recent research on the endocrinological, genetic, and biochemical aspects of animal development. Prerequisite: a course in developmental biology or cell biology.

BISC 6251. Evolutionary Developmental Biology. 3 Credits.

Developmental mechanisms involved in the morphological changes that occur during the course of evolution.    (Spring).

BISC 6252. Seminar: Neurobiology. 3 Credits.

Study of current publications in functional neurobiology. May be repeated for credit with instructor’s permission.    (Spring, odd years).

BISC 6274. Gene Regulation and Genetic Engineering. 3 Credits.

The control of gene expression as illustrated by several prokaryotic and eukaryotic model systems: discussions of recombinant DNA techniques. Prerequisite: BISC 2207.

BISC 6275. Introduction to Recombinant DNA Techniques. 3 Credits.

Lecture, 1 hour; laboratory, 4 hours. Basic techniques of genetic manipulation: cloning of genes, transformation of bacteria, PCR procedures, DNA sequencing, and other techniques. Prerequisite: BISC 2202 or BISC 2207 or BISC 2337 and permission of instructor. Laboratory fee.

BISC 6295. Research. 1-12 Credits.

Investigation of special problems. May be repeated for credit.

BISC 6998. Thesis Research. 3 Credits.

BISC 6999. Thesis Research. 3 Credits.

BISC 8998. Advanced Reading & Research. 1-12 Credits.

Limited to students preparing for the Doctor of Philosophy general examination. May be repeated for credit.

BISC 8999. Dissertation Research. 3-12 Credits.

Limited to Doctor of Philosophy candidates. May be repeated for credit.