This course studies the methodologies employed in the chemical analysis of human blood and body fluids. This includes an examination of the fundamentals of measurement and the principles of instrumentation as they relate to the assay of each analyte studied. In addition, the laboratory results are correlated with the clinical significance and pathophysiology which may generate changes in the analyte. Throughout the course, the quality assurance measures required to ensure reliability and validity of the laboratory results will also be emphasized.
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Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Compare and contrast the following methodologies: spectrophotometry, ion-selective electrodes, chromatography, osmometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay.
2. Apply the theoretical principles of instrumentation to the measurement of the following analytes: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, enzymes, electrolytes, and blood gases.
3. Correlate the pathophysiology, clinical significance, and diagnostic criteria to the laboratory analyses of the above chemical constituents.
4. Characterize the distribution of the analytes among compartments in the body and among the various forms of each found in plasma.
5. Devise a protocol for the collection and handling of a blood specimen for each measured analyte with minimal preanalytic error.
6. Describe how the liver functions to include the products of metabolism, their laboratory detection, and clinical significance.
7. Validate a set of test results given the quality control parameters and predict the reliability of the measured constituent.
8. Perform and interpret routine calculations, such as reagent or sample dilutions, Beer’s law, pKa, anion gap, osmol gap, osmolality, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 24-hour urine creatinine clearance, and lipoprotein ratios.