This second course in clinical biochemistry continues the study of the measurement and interpretation of chemical constituents in human blood and body fluids. The laboratory results of each analyte are correlated with the clinical significance and pathophysiology which may generate changes in the analyte. Throughout the course, the quality assurance measures required to ensure reliability and validity of the laboratory results will also be emphasized.
1. Characterize the metabolic forms and physiological distribution of the following analytes: hormones, creatinine, urea, uric acid, therapeutic drugs, toxins, heavy metals, drugs of abuse, and tumor markers. 2. Correlate the pathophysiology, clinical significance, and diagnostic criteria to the laboratory analyses for each of the above chemical constituents. 3. Apply the theoretical principles of instrumentation to the measurement of each analyte. 4. Diagram the physiological mechanisms, laboratory detection, and clinical significance for the following endocrine glands: hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, and reproductive glands. 5. Describe the performance of a routine urinalysis including specimen collection, components, test principles, and quality control. 6. Correlate test results of a routine urinalysis to arrive at a clinical diagnosis or to identify discrepancies. 7. Discuss the analysis of the following body fluids: cerebrospinal, synovial, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal, seminal, and amniotic. 8. Correlate test results of the body fluid analyses listed above with the appropriate clinical diagnoses. 9. Describe therapeutic drug monitoring and toxicological studies identifying the most frequently measured substances and the methods used for their detection. 10. Identify the role of tumor markers and evaluate their usefulness in diagnosing and following the treatment of tumors. 11. Devise a protocol for the collection and handling of blood and urine specimens for each measured analyte with minimal pre-analytic error. 12. Perform calculations to determine reportable results as needed. 13. Validate a set of test results given the quality control parameters and predict the reliability of the measured constituent. 14. Analyze reported chemistry data to determine the possible diagnosis, or next course of action.